Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.
Negative feedback occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Quantum biology refers to applications of quantum mechanics and theoretical chemistry to biological objects and problems.
Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.
Biosemiotics (from the Greek bios meaning "life" and semeion meaning "sign") is a growing field of semiotics and biology that studies the production and interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm.
Sociobiology is a field of scientific study that is based on the hypothesis that social behavior has resulted from evolution and attempts to examine and explain social behavior within that context.
Transmission electron microscopy
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the specimen as it passes through it.
A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Conjoined twins are identical twins joined in utero.
A vivarium (Latin, literally for "place of life"; plural: vivaria or vivariums) is an area, usually enclosed, for keeping and raising animals or plants for observation or research.
In medicine and biology, scatology or coprology is the study of feces.
Biological immortality refers to a stable or decreasing rate of mortality from senescence, thus decoupling it from chronological age.
Cation diffusion facilitator
Cation diffusion facilitators (CDFs) are integral membrane proteins that increase tolerance to divalent metal ions such as cadmium, zinc, and cobalt.
The Formate-Nitrite Transporter (FNT) Family (TC# 1.A.16) is a family of homologous transmembrane proteins belonging to the Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) Superfamily.
Nucleobase cation symporter-2
The Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-2 (NCS2) Family, also called the Nucleobase/Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) Family, consists of over 1000 sequenced proteins derived from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, archaea, fungi, plants and animals.
Trabecular cartilages (trabeculae cranii, sometimes simply trabeculae) are paired, rod-shaped cartilages, which develop in the head of the vertebrate embryo.
Bibliography of encyclopedias: biology
This is a list of encyclopedias as well as encyclopedic and biographical dictionaries published on the subject of biology in any language.
Pseudohypoxia refers to increased cytosolic ratio of free NADH to NAD in cells.
A biologist, or biological scientist, is a scientist who studies living organisms, often in the context of their environment.
Pursuit predation is a form of predation in which predators give chase to fleeing prey.
A polyphenic trait is a trait for which multiple, discrete phenotypes can arise from a single genotype as a result of differing environmental conditions.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
The Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Family (TC# 2.A.3) of transport proteins includes members that function as solute:cation symporters and solute:solute antiporters.
Members of the Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter (AGCS) Family (TC# 2.A.25) transport alanine and/or glycine in symport with Na+ and or H+.
Radioactivity in the life sciences
Radioactivity can be used in life sciences as a radiolabel to visualise components or target molecules in a biological system.
Proteins of the Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter (BCCT) family (TC# 2.A.15) are found in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and archaea.
Nucleobase cation symporter-1
The Nucleobase:Cation Symporter-1 (NCS1) Family (TC# 2.A.39) consists of over 1000 currently sequenced proteins derived from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, archaea, fungi and plants.
The Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) superfamily, sometimes referred to as the MACPF/CDC superfamily, is named after a domain that is common to the membrane attack complex (MAC) proteins of the complement system (C6, C7, C8α, C8β and C9) and perforin (PF).
Na+/H+ antiporter A (NhaA) family (TC# 2.A.33) contains a number of bacterial sodium-proton antiporter (SPAP) proteins.
Nicotinamide ribonucleoside uptake transporters
The Nicotinamide Ribonucleoside (NR) Uptake Permease (PnuC) Family (TC# 4.B.1) is a family of transmembrane transporters that is part of the TOG superfamily.
The p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate transporter (AbgT) family (TC# 2.A.68) is a family of transporter proteins belonging to the ion transporter (IT) superfamily.
Sodium/proton antiporters are essential secondary-active transporters for sodium and pH homeostasis.